Шикульская О. М., Герасимова В. А.
д.т.н., профессор, Астраханского государственного университета; аспирантка Астраханского государственного университета
МОДЕЛИ ЖИЗНЕННОГО ЦИКЛА КОМПЕТЕНЦИИ
В работе выполнен анализ исследований в области компетентностного подхода в образовании, усовершенствована модель жизненного цикла компетенции (AS-IS), показана недостаточная проработка в известных работах вопросов планирования и разработки общеобразовательной программы как начального этапа реализации компетентностного подхода. Предложена новая модель жизненного цикла компетенции (TO-BE) с информационной поддержкой этого процесса.
Ключевые слова: компетентностный подход; модель жизненного цикла; общеобразовательная программа.
Shikulskaya O.M.1 , Gerasimova V.A.2
1 Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, 2 Graduate student, University Astrakhan State
MODELS OF THE COMPETENCE LIFE CYCLE
In this paper the analysis of research in the area of competence approach in education is performed, competence life-cycle model (AS-IS) is improved, the authors showed insufficient study in famous works of the planning and development of educational program as the initial stage of the competency approach. A new model of the life cycle of competence (TO-BE) with information support of this process is offered.
Keywords: competence-based approach; life cycle model; educational program.
In the dynamic development of economics takes place the reorganization of the system of education. Modernization of the content of education is closely connected with the development of a competence-based approach. Today’s graduates should have such qualities as mobility, responsibility, ability to apply the gained knowledge in unfamiliar situations, communication skills, flexibility. That’s why the task to graduate specialists possessing not only certain knowledge and skills and to teach a person to act in a concrete life situation is set before educational institutions. The built earlier educational models can’t fully train professionals whom the modern economics needs in. The introduction of the new Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Professional Education focuses educational institutions on the result of training expressed by the language of competences, therefore higher education institutions are to teach a student to work in the conditions of uncertainty, frequent change of information and to be able to improve constantly his professional level.
The result of the mastering is aformed set of competencies, i.e. the set of knowledge, skills, abilities and personal qualities necessary for the further successful career after the completion of the educational program. A graduate should possess such a set at the end of the educational process.
The results of the carried-out analysis on scientific and technical literature [1, 2] connected with the definition of the concepts”competence”, “competency”and the introduction of a competence-based approach into the system of education, indicate multidimensionality and ambiguity of interpretation of these concepts, and therefore, the based on them approach to the result of teaching and need of modernization of the system of training.
It is an absolutely new paradigm in education, and in spite of a huge number of works in differentfields of science devoted to this subject there are still a lot of uninvestigated questions.
For consideration of all the components of a competence-based approach it is convenient to use the concept of the model of the competence life cycle introduced into the work . However, the model presented in this work doesn’t include the initial stage – the stage of planning and development of the general education program, which is the most important one, and the wrong selection of studied disciplines inthe general education program won’t allow to create competences demanded by the educational standard and employers.
In this connection the author worked out the model of the competence life cycle (Fig 1). The presented structure of graduates training represents the set of the processes realized by structural subdivisions of a higher educational establishment.
Fig. 1 – The structure of the model of the competence life cycle (AS-IS)
For identification of “bottlenecks” in the research of a competence-based approach of scientific works connected with the stages of the competence life cycle [1, 3-10] the results of the analysis are summarized in table 1. The process of planning and development of the educational program is indicated in the table as stage I, the process of realization ofthe general education program is divided into two stages: II –competence formation, III – control of possession of the competence.
Table 1 – Summary table of authors’ development on formation of competences of university graduates
Phases of CLC
|Krayukova I. V.||+||+|
The analysis of the table showed that the most uninvestigated thing is the process of planning and development of the educational program. The authors offered a new model of the competence life cycle (TO-BE) with the information support of this process (Fig 2).
Fig. 2 – The structure of the model of the competence life cycle (TO-BE)
The process of planning and development of the educational program is divided into the following sub processes: formation of a databank of the given disciplines, formation of the set of competences, formation of the structure of the educational program, completion of documents of the educational program. For realization of this process teachers and employers are supposed to be attracted as experts. The developed model of the competence life cycle forms the plan of authors’ further researches in this direction.
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