ТУРИЗМ КАК ФАКТОР УСТОЙЧИВОГО РАЗВИТИЯ В МЕЖКУЛЬТУРНОМ ДИАЛОГЕ
В САХАЛИНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
Лим Э.Х.1, Корнеева И.В.2, *
1, 2 Сахалинский государственный университет, Южно-Сахалинск, Россия
* Корреспондирующий автор (verkor73[at]mail.ru)
Современное общество сегодня представляет собой поле межкультурного взаимодействия, а туризм, достигая глобальных масштабов, стал существенно затрагивать социокультурные основы всей жизнедеятельности общества в контексте взаимодействия представителей разных стран и наций. В той или иной степени это характерно и для Сахалинской области, которая исторически складывалась как территория, обживаемая людьми разных национальностей, географически располагаясь в самом динамично развивающемся регионе мира. На сегодняшний день одним из приоритетов экономического развития Сахалинской области является туристская отрасль. Главной целью в сфере туризма является создание современного и конкурентоспособного туристского комплекса, обеспечивающего широкие возможности для удовлетворения потребностей туристов в разнообразных туристских услугах, а также разработка экономических и правовых механизмов развития и реализации мер по обеспечению качества туристских продуктов Сахалинской области. Туризм вносит существенный вклад в обеспечение устойчивого социально-экономического развития и социальной стабильности, а также способствует самозанятости населения. Межкультурная коммуникация в этом аспекте выступает смысловой и идеально-содержательной стороной культурного взаимодействия.
Ключевые слова: туристская индустрия, туристический поток, туристические ресурсы, межкультурная среда.
TOURISM AS A FACTOR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ADVANCEMENT
IN INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE IN SAKHALIN REGION
Lim E.Kh.1, Korneeva I.V.2, *
1, 2 Sakhalin State University, Sakhalin, Russia
* Corresponding author (verkor73[at]mail.ru)
Modern society today is a field of intercultural interaction, and tourism, reaching a global scale, began to affect significantly the sociocultural foundations of the entire life of society in the context of interaction between representatives of different countries and nations. This process is typical for the Sakhalin Region, historically developed as a territory populated by people of different nationalities and geographically located in the most dynamically developing region of the world. Today, one of the priorities of the economic development of the Sakhalin region is the tourism industry. The main goal in the field of tourism is the creation of a modern and competitive tourist complex that provides opportunities to meet the needs of tourists in a variety of tourist services, as well as the development of economic and legal mechanisms for the development and implementation of measures to ensure the quality of tourist products of the Sakhalin region. Tourism makes a significant contribution to ensuring sustainable socio-economic development and social stability, and also contributes to self-employment of the population. Intercultural communication in this aspect is the semantic and ideally content side of cultural interaction.
Keywords: tourism industry, tourist flow, tourist resources, intercultural environment.
It is absolutely clear, that tourism is becoming more and more important as a form of intercultural contacts. Traveling teaches us cultural tolerance, mutual understanding between representatives of different cultures and promote the formation of social and cultural identity. Tourism can be considered as a dialogical form for meeting of different cultures, as an opportunity to reduce international tension and to develop the cooperation and mutual understanding between all states.
Sakhalin Region is located in the Far East of the Russian Federation, the eastern costs of Eurasia. Sakhalin Region is the only one subject of the Russian Federation located on 59 islands comprising Sakhalin Island, Moneron Island, Tyuleniy Island and 56 islands of the Kuril chain.
As a subject of the Russian Federation, Sakhalin is administratively a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The distance to the capital of Russia, the city of Moscow, is 10,417 kilometers. The time difference between the regional center (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) and Moscow is 8 hours (with the Republic of Korea – 2 hours).
The population of Sakhalin region is 493 300 people (January 2016). 197 000 people are living in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the administrative center of the region. There are more than 100 nationalities living is Sakhalin region. 86,5% ethnic Russians are the largest group, followed by 5,3% of Koreans, 2,6% Ukrainians, 1% Tatars and a whole host of smaller groups.
Sakhalin Region is the historical homeland for the indigenous minorities of the North such as Nivkhs (the largest group), Uilta (Oroki), Evenki, Nanaian minorities and other ethnic groups (about 4 thousand people of indigenous minorities).
Leading industries of regional economy are oil and gas production, coal mining, fishery and energy. Oil and gas sector occupies a central position in the economy (more than 80% of the total volume of industrial production). Today, Sakhalin produces 5% of the world’s liquefied natural gas. Liquefied natural gas is supplied to Japan (more than 65%), the Republic of Korea, China, and other countries. Sakhalin also has very specific natural resources and rich with thermal springs, mineral waters and mineral therapeutic muds.
The Second Eastern Economic Forum was hold in Vladivostok, in September 2-3, 2016. The Forum will be initially held from the 6th through the 7th of September 2017 on Russky Island in Vladivostok in accordance with Decree No. 250 of the Russian President of May 19, 2015.
As it was mentioned by the leaders of Russia and Sakhalin region, the Far East with its geography, natural resources and direct access to the most promising world markets has great opportunities for economic development. Also, due to the natural, geographical and other unique features of the region, the investment attractiveness of the Sakhalin economy is very high at the moment. As the results of the EEF, there were 17 agreements signed in such spheres as agriculture, tourism, transport, balneology and sport, fuel and energy complex, trade and fisheries sector.
The agreement for construction of big spa complex “Honoka Sakhalin” by Japanese company signed at the Forum can be considered as a good example. The complex will be located on the historical area within the boundaries of the forest at the foot of sports and tourist complex “Mountain Air”.
During the period of Karafuto Governorship there was a heath complex at that place. According to the analysis of Japanese maps and geological information from the University of Hokkaido the place is rich with hot mineral springs. No doubts, such projects will boost development of tourism on Sakhalin and will become one of the peculiarities not only of Sakhalin, but of the whole part of Russian Far East.
- The Forum will be initially held from the 6th through the 7th of September 2017 on Russky Island in Vladivostok in accordance with Decree No. 250 of the Russian President of May 19, 2015.
- The Forum will be initially held from the 6th through the 7th of September 2017 on Russky Island in Vladivostok in accordance with Decree No. 250 of the Russian President of May 19, 2015.
The tourism industry of Sakhalin is one of the most promising and developing sectors of the regional economy. There are thermal springs, therapeutic mud, more than 1000 cultural and historical objects, mountain skiing landscape and unique hydrology for diving, water sports and sea cruises.
Regional tourist resources determine the development of the main types of tourism becoming the most popular, both now and in the future:
– fishing and hunting;
– historical and cultural;
– medical and health;
Table 1 – Tourism Complex
|Tourism Complex||Attractive natural landscape||High tariff for passenger transportation to and within the Sakhalin region and the total cost of the region’s tourist product.|
|Thematic destinations for tourists from Japan and Korea.||Insularity of Island, no land-connection with continental part of Russia.|
|Short sea and air routes to the Far East of Russia and Asia-Pacific Countries.||Small number, poor accessibility and infrastructure of tourism destination|
|Thermal resources for developing of balneological tourism||Inability of seaports to receive big cruise liners|
|Favorable ecological environment for development of tourism and recreational facilities||Difficult access conditions to Kuril Islands, lack of appropriate infrastructure|
In this regard, the main areas of tourism development in Sakhalin Region are as following:
- increasing the export of tourist services for tourists from other countries and different parts of Russia
- creating the image of Sakhalin Region as a destination attractive and favorable for international and domestic tourism, promoting it to the internal and external markets;
- developing of new regional and interregional routes, new facilities for mass tourism, active promotion of existing and newly created regional tourism brands;
- developing of tourism infrastructure, attraction of extra-budgetary sources for the construction of tourist facilities.
Analysis of the current state of tourism sector in Sakhalin Region shows that developing of this economic sector has been stable in recent years. According to the figures from Ministry of Sport, Tourism and Youth Policy of Sakhalin Region, the flow of foreign and Russian tourists keeps growing. As a result, there is increasing tax revenue from tourism activities in the consolidated budget of Sakhalin and growing number of local tourist companies.
In 2014, the inbound international tourism flow exceeded outbound one, for the first time ever, and achieved to more than 27.3 thousand people, which is 3.4 times more than in 2013. Travellers flow from different parts of Russia has also increased twice reaching more than 14.3 thousand people in 2014. In September 1, 2015 there were 73 organizations registered in the register of tourism companies in the region, 5 more than in 2014 .
According to the investment strategy of Sakhalin Region for 2025, the tourism industry is one of the economic sectors with high development potential. There are a lot of examples showing the further-flung regions turned into international tourism centers through specialization on unique products and services.
In this regard, Sakhalin region with its rich and diverse nature, unique geography, as well as resource potential (balneological and thermal springs), mineral mud, more than 1000 cultural and historical sites, landscape opportunities for mountain skiing and unique hydrology for diving, water sports and sea cruises) has strong economic rationale for the development of tourism cluster and for the noticeable growth of its role in the economic structure.
Recreation Tourism with its Mounting Ski Resorts and Balneological and Thermal Springs Resorts can be considered as one of the most promising directions for tourism development in Sakhalin. The largest infrastructure project here is a construction of sports and tourist complex “Mountain Air”.
The next important project is a large Spa-center “Sakhalin Mineral Waters” (“Sakhalinskie Mineralnue Vody”) with sport and recreation infrastructure.
Cruise liner tourism around Sakhalin and Kuril Islands, adventure and extreme tourism like hunting, fishing and diving can become a part of region’s tourism industry as well.
Pull it together, Sakhalin and Kuriles are universal place for tourism due to its richest arsenal of medical and recreational resources to be used for further health purposes.
Sakhalin has many unique objects. Moneron Island located in the south-western part of Sakhalin is one of the glories of region’s nature. The place is protected by the Government and has unique hydrology for diving. A large number of rivers, lakes and the sea coast create the ideal conditions for outdoor activities and relaxed travellers.
A unique combination of cultural, historical and natural resources of Sakhalin region make the Island area be more attractive both for domestic and international tourists. Sakhalin Region is a multi-ethnic and multicultural space. Cultural tourism as a resource for regional development has a lot opportunities and prospects. Peculiarity of ethno-cultural environment determines its attractiveness for international tourists who are representatives of other cultures.
Today, significant part of the tourist flow is made up of visitors from Japan. In this regard, cultural and ethnic tourism (visiting the homeland of ancestors, acquaintance with the cultural heritage of its ancestral people, ethnic theme parks) is very popular among Japanese tourists.
In the administrative center you can get acquainted with the traces of Japanese culture – one of the Shinto temples still remaining in Sakhalin, buildings of Japanese bank and museum from the period of Karafuto Governorship. A lot of historical and cultural treasures of Sakhalin are stored here nowadays.
The largest Korean diaspora in Russia of about 25 000 people are living in Sakhalin (5.3% of the total population of the region) . Many representatives of the first generation moved to Korea (their homeland) but relatives stayed on Sakhalin. As a result, family exchange visits represent a significant sector of tourism industry, as well as cultural and ethnic tourism developing actively. Many anthropologists, literary critics whose theme of research are Sakhalin Koreans, visit Sakhalin as an object of their research.
Like any other regions, Sakhalin has its own history. Due to the fact that Sakhalin Region is the historical home of the indigenous minority people of the North: Nivkh, Uilta (Oroki), Evenki, Nanais and other ethnic groups (4 thousand people of indigenous small peoples), cultural and ethnographic tourism is actively developing nowadays. In particular, it is planned to increase the construction of ethno-villages representing the traditional culture and life of indigenous people.
The next direction for tourism industry development is gastronomic tourism. Restaurants with traditional cuisines of many different countries of the world can be chosen as one of the exotic features of the Island administrative center. Fresh seafood, fish delicacies, caviar of all available fish species and dishes from wild plants (for example, fern, marsh marigold, dropwort, burdock etc.) are very popular among the tourists.
Obviously, since the tourist potential of the region is not fully realized, creating conditions for quality recreational opportunities on Sakhalin for Russian and international travellers require more active state policy participation in the sphere of tourism developing.
Tourism should be recognized as a part of intercultural understanding process and mutual respect between countries. Dialogue of cultures by means of tourism is considered as an effective form of intercultural communication and practical instrument to smooth inter-ethnic and inter-confessional contradictions and tensions.
Frontline staff including tour guides and interpreters is supposed to play a key role in the process of intercultural communications. In order to ensure a high level quality of the tourist product, Sakhalin State University plans the preparation of professional guide-interpreters with knowledge of English and Asian (Korean, Japanese, Chinese) languages in 2017. Also, in connection with the schedule of various international sports events in Sakhalin region and the organization of training facilities for Russian athletes for the forthcoming Olympic Games in 2018, 2020, 2022 in the Republic of Korea, Japan and China, the University plans to start training process for professional volunteers and translators of international sports competitions.
Realization of the stated goals will improve the quality of service in the tourism industry of Sakhalin Region and the competitiveness of the regional tourist product.
|Conflict of Interest
Список литературы / References
- Закон Сахалинской области «Об особо охраняемых природных территориях Сахалинской области» (с изменениями на 06 июля 2020 г.) Принят Сахалинской областной думой 7 декабря 2006 г. [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://tourism.sakhalin.gov.ru/dokumenty/proekty/normativno-pravovye-akty-sahalinskoj-oblasti/ (дата обращения 15.08.2020)
- Стратегия развития туризма в Сахалинской области до 2022 года [Электронный ресурс] URL: https://sakhalin.gov.ru/index.php?id=89 (дата обращения 15.08.2020)
- Закон Сахалинской области от 27.03.2009 N 23-ЗО «О туризме и туристской деятельности в Сахалинской области». Принят Сахалинской областной Думой 19 марта 2009г. [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://tourism.sakhalin.gov.ru/dokumenty/proekty/normativno-pravovye-akty-sahalinskoj-oblasti/ (дата обращения 25.10.2020).
- Постановление Об утверждении государственной программы Сахалинской области «Развитие внутреннего и въездного туризма в Сахалинской области (с изменениями на 13 марта 2020 года) [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://tourism.sakhalin.gov.ru/wpcontent/uploads/2016/07/Ob_utverzhdenii_gosudarstvennoj_programmy_Razvitie_vnutrennego_i_vezdnogo_turizma_v_Sahalinskoj_oblasti_na_2017-2022_gody.pdf (дата обращения: 18.09.2020)
- Сахалинская область. Информация о регионе [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www.russiatourism.ru/regions/?fedok=105&freg=259 (дата обращения: 18.09.2020)
- Туризм. Официальный сайт Правительства Сахалинской области [Электронный ресурс] URL: https://sakhalin.gov.ru/index.php?id=89 (дата обращения: 18.09.2020)
Список литературы на английском языке / References in English
- Zakon Sahalinskoj oblasti «Ob osobo ohranjaemyh prirodnyh territorijah Sahalinskoj oblasti» (s izmenenijami na 06 ijulja 2020 g.) Prinjat Sahalinskoj oblastnoj dumoj 7 dekabrja 2006 g. [Authorization of the Federal Program “Inbound and Outbound Tourism Development in Sakhalin Region for 2017-2022”] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://tourism.sakhalin.gov.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ (accessed 15.08.2020) [in Russian]
- Strategija razvitija turizma v Sahalinskoj oblasti do 2022 goda [Strategy of tourism development in the Sakhalin region until 2022] [Electronic resource] URL: https://sakhalin.gov.ru/index.php?id=89 (accessed 15.08.2020) [in Russian]
- Zakon Sahalinskoj oblasti ot 27.03.2009 N 23-ZO «O turizme i turistskoj dejatel’nosti v Sahalinskoj oblasti». Prinjat Sahalinskoj oblastnoj Dumoj 19 marta 2009g [The Law of the Sakhalin region of 27.03.2009 N 23-ZO “On tourism and tourist activities in the Sakhalin region”. Adopted by the Sakhalin Regional Duma on March 19, 2009]. [Electronic resource] URL: http://tourism.sakhalin.gov.ru/dokumenty/proekty/normativno-pravovye-akty-sahalinskoj-oblasti/ (accessed 25.10.2020). [in Russian]
- Postanovlenie Ob utverzhdenii gosudarstvennoj programmy Sahalinskoj oblasti «Razvitie vnutrennego i v#ezdnogo turizma v Sahalinskoj oblasti (s izmenenijami na 13 marta 2020 goda) [Resolution on the approval of the state program of the Sakhalin region ” Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Sakhalin region (as amended on March 13, 2020)] [Electronic resource] URL: https://clck.ru/Tde2N (accessed: 18.09.2020) [in Russian]
- Sahalinskaja oblast’. Informacija o regione [Sakhalin region. Information about the region] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.russiatourism.ru/regions/?fedok=105&freg=259 (accessed: 18.09.2020) [in Russian]
- Turizm. Oficial’nyj sajt Pravitel’stva Sahalinskoj oblasti [Tourism. Official website of the Government of the Sakhalin region] [Electronic resource] URL: https://sakhalin.gov.ru/index.php?id=89 (accessed: 18.09.2020) [in Russian]