Рущак Е.А.1 , Ченцова Е. И.2 , Ядрин А.В. 3
1Магистрант, 2 магистрант, Санкт-Петербургский Государственный университет, 3аспирант, Санкт-Петербургский государственный экономический университет
В связи с увеличением интереса к интеллектуальному капиталу, а в частности к человеческому капиталу, в социально-экономической политики России, возникает потребность в создании четкой теоретической базы, объясняющей этот феномен. Цель исследования – изучить имеющиеся теоретические источники, посвященные интеллектуальному капиталу и систематизировать полученную информацию. Полученный материал может быть использован для подготовки к эмпирическим исследованиям в данной области.
Ключевые слова: интеллектуальный капитал, потребительский капитал, человеческий капитал.
Rushchak E.A. 1, Chentsova E.I. 2, Yadrin A.V.3
1Master student, 2 master student, Saint-Petersburg State University, 3postgraduate student, Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance
According with interest increasing in intellectual capital, especially in human capital, in the socio-economic policy of Russia, there is a need to create a high-quality theoretical basis to explain phenomenon. The purpose of research – theoretical study available sources about the intellectual capital and organize the information. The information we received can be used for the preparation of empirical research in this area.
Keywords: intellectual capital, human capital, consumer (the client) capital.
Based on knowledge economy which also focused on the creation and use of intellectual capital is becoming a major factor in socio-economic development of individual countries and regions. The increasing importance of intellectual capital becomes clear not only to the leaders of individual companies and organizations, but also for policy makers around the world.
In the modern life of a market society in the late victory of competition is based on the scientific and intellectual capital and in successes of creating innovative products.
The basis of innovation of the organization is its intellectual capital. The level of intellectual capital and its ability to effectively use predetermine the success of the organization on the market of goods and services.
Investments in human capital are paying 5-6 times greater than the production of goods. Only 15-16% of economic growth due to physical capital, about 20% – raw materials and 65% – due to human of Economic and Social Capital. Therefore, the issues of growth of intellectual potential, increase growth of development and introduction of high technology, develop the research potential of the nation – the priority directions of public policy in developed countries. [1,6]
T. Stewart was the first researcher who showed specifics of intellectual capital. In 1991 presented a paper intellectual capital as the sum of all that workers are aware of and that gives us a competitive advantage in the market: “… patents, about processes, management skills, technology, experience and information about consumers and suppliers. Taken together, these skills are intellectual capital. ”
British experts in management are Albert S. and K. Bradley called the intellectual capital of the process of transformation of knowledge and intangible assets to resources that provide a competitive advantage to individuals, businesses and nations.
Focus on intellectual capital as the main factor of economic development today is done by many countries, including those that can not be attributed to a number of natural disadvantaged resources management. As an example, refer to the experience of Sweden, where spending on science are among the highest in the world (they are especially large in the large multinational companies). It has enabled Sweden before others to restructure industry by reducing companies with low competition, traditional industries (shipbuilding, metallurgy, textile industry) and quickly develop new high-tech production. On the world market Swedish firms produced TSS high-quality cars (VOLVO, SAAB), electrical products (ABB), the automated systems of the household (concern Electrolux), equipment for the food industry (Alfa Concern Laval). Under the impact of scientific developments dictated by market demand, e.g. home furniture shop has grown larger firm IKEA, which has more than 12 thousand kinds of principles fundamentally new, collapsible furniture for the price by 20-30% below the competition. [1,3,4]
Intellectual capital is dividing by three forms: human, structural (organizational); consumer (the client).
Human capital is represented is it possible the greatest value of the company, as it includes the stock of knowledge, education, skills, creativity and ability to think of people, their moral values, motivation, cultural, which are used by the individual (or organization) to generate income.
Human capital can not be separated from the person and give to another owner. It can depreciate degrade in connection with the worn-out man or as a result of obsolescence of knowledge and skills (of this consequence of the special importance of education and training systems under cooking). Human capital has significantly longer payback period in compare with physical capital. Period was of general and special education takes at least 10-15 years and then only invest in human capital are beginning to return, increasing as you gain work experience. Significant has singularities and the process of accumulation of human capital is equal to the volume of investment can have different results, because they are influenced by personal timbers, motivation and labor of workers.
Correlation between work productivity and education showed that increasing 10% in education give growth productivity by 8.6%. For the same increase of the share capital productivity increases by 3-4%. 
According to the UN Development Programme (UNDP) today on the planet physical capital , or accumulated wealth, is only about 16% of the present heritage; natural wealth – 20% and human capital or accumulated investment in human – 64%. In many developed countries, the share of human capital reaches is 80%. In Russia, everything is different: 72% – raw materials factor, and only 14% – human capital. By the criteria of Human Capital Quality Russia has 57th place in the World. Ahead of Russian are Baltic countries, behind – all the countries of the CIS.
Structural / organizational capital
“Knowledge without leaving to home after the work-day” Attributed to structural capital, corporate information systems, databases, hardware and software, organizations structure, copyrights, patents, know-how, licenses, trademarks, corporate culture.
The intrinsic value of the structural capital and of capital in general, determined not by its presence and effectiveness completely use. Structural capital is more a property of the company and can be relatively independent object of sale.
Consumer capital (also on called a client, or capital ratios) – this is primarily due to the company’s customers and its products, based on the history of relations, on the accumulation and constant updating of customer information. The essence of these transmission connect through relationships with consumers, suppliers, competitors, local communities, as well as human cut brands, trademarks and image of the organization. According to the popular “Pareto ratio” regulars, accounting 20% of the total customer base, generate 80% of profits. The result of an ongoing relationship is the belief that clients of the company will continue to give away her preference. Thus customer capital is sometimes called “capital relations”. 
The Readers Digest clients database has the information about the preferences of millions families, their orders of magazines, books, tapes, and CDs. With this information, the company can provide personalized service tailored to the previous selection during the years.
It’s difficult to compare different types of intellectual capital.
Invest separately to employees and customers of the system also not enough. In order to achieve synergy effect need result from the interaction and interference of all three kinds.
The economy’s ability to create and use intellectual capital increasingly determines the economic strength of the nation and its welfare.
Russian intellectual wealth, estimated by some experts at a cost of only counted intellectual property is evaluating today more than 11 trillion rubles. But in the country only 15% of the adult population has a university degree, and for the transition move towards an economy based on knowledge, the number of workers with university education should be about 60-90%.
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