Николаева А. Ю.
Старший преподаватель, Сибирский федеральный университет
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ ПОЛИТИКА В ОТНОШЕНИИ ЖЕНЩИН В 90-Е ГГ. XX ВЕКА (НА МАТЕРИАЛАХ КРАСНОЯРСКОГО КРАЯ)
Актуальность исследования проблем формирования государственной политики в отношении женщин обусловлена тем, что в последнее десятилетие ХХ в. Россия пережила ряд политических, социально-экономических и культурных потрясений. Изменилось государство, политический строй, социальная структура общества, ценностные, нравственные и полоролевые установки населения. Как известно, в кризисные периоды истории страны роль женщин всегда возрастала в экономике, политике, культуре и общественной жизни, сдвигая тем самым на второй план их основное предназначение – роли матери и жены.
В период кризиса только политика государства, его поддержка может сохранить и обеспечить выполнение женщинами их основных функций – брачной и репродуктивной, сохранить семейную структуру общества.
Цель работы – выявить влияние государственной политики на положение женщин в 90-е гг. ХХ в.
В статье использованы следующие методы: историзма и объективности. Теоретико-методологической основой исследования выступает стратификационная методология, теоретические положения гендерного подхода.
Результатами работы является рассмотрение влияния государственной политики в отношении женщин на социально-демографическую ситуацию в Красноярском крае. В научный оборот введены новые материалы, которые не использовались ранее, в т. ч. материалы местных архивов.
Исследование социально-экономического положения женщин в 90-е гг. ХХ в. позволяет сделать вывод о необходимости разработки государственных мер по преодолению демографического кризиса, вызванного политическими и социально-экономическими реформами периода перестройки.
Ключевые слова: государственная политика, гендерное неравенство, социально-экономическое положение женщин, демографический кризис.
Nikolaeva A. U.
Senior teacher, Siberian Federal University
THE WOMEN’S STATE POLICY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE 1990S (USING THE MATERIALS OF THE KRASNOYARSK REGION)
Actuality of studying women’s state policy problems in the 1990s in Russia is determined by political, socio-economic and cultural reforms because political organization and social structure of the society have changed. This caused the changing of women role in policy, economics and family.
The aim of work is to find out the state policy impact to women’s position in the 1990s.
In the article the following methods were used: historical approach and objectivism. Theoretical and methodological basis is stratification methodology, theoretical positions of gender approach.
The results of work are analyses of the women’s state policy impact to socio-demographic situation in the Krasnoyarsk region. In the scientific usage new materials and materials of local archives were introduced.
The study of women’s position in the 1990s enables to make a conclusion that it is necessary to work out state measures to overcome the demographic crises caused by socio-economic reforms during the “Perestroyka” Period.
Keywords: The state policy, gender inequality, the socio-economic position of women, demographic crises.
Actuality of problem investigating formation and realization of women’s state policy is caused by political, socio-economic and cultural changes taking place in the last decade of the ХХth century in Russia. The state, the political system, the social structure of the society, value, moral and gender traditions of population have been changed. It is known that in crises periods in history the role of women is always increased in economy, policy, culture and social life, shifting their main mission – roles of mother and wife to the sidelines.
In crises periods only state policy, its support can save and provide for carrying out main women’s functions – marital and reproductive, also it can keep family structure of the society and overcome the demographic crises.
Investigating problems of formation and development of women’s state policy in the 1990s in the Russian Federation took on special significance because addressing to the USSR breakup experience, formation and development of new statehood in the Russian Federation enabled to solve women problems using new methods. In the investigating period the foundation of the Russian Federation women’s state policy were laid, new forms and methods of work were created. They can be used by modern organizations, public political parties and state structures.
Investigating the women’s state policy on regional level is caused by the following statistics – in the Krasnoyarsk region on the 1st January in 1990 the population size was 3618 thousand, of them women were 1853.4 thousand (51,2%). According to the data of population census in Russia in 2002 population size in the region was 3015.3, and women were – 1579.0 thousand (52,4%) . Regional women were influenced by the country reforms. So, in the investigating period women dominated in the population size of the region and they influenced its history.
Object of research is women in the Russian Federation.
Survey of foreign and Russian literature
Research of marital and reproductive behavior of women is multy-disciplinary. Women problems are studied by doctors, physiologists, psychologists, economists, sociologists, political scientists and other specialists. Historians analyze women position in family and in way of life and also evolution of women position in the society and main problems of formation and realization of the women’s state policy. Sources of gender investigations are based on the traditions connecting with analyzing, on one hand, problems of a family, on the other hand, women positions in the society.
A great contribution to the theory of women investigation in the last quarter of the XXth century was made by the French, the representatives of “Annals school”, who created new approaches to “Children History”, “Sexuality History”, “Senility History”, each of them was connected with Women History [15, c. 9].
Since 1991 in historiography an attitude to “Women History” has been absolutely changed. Thanks to gender approach Russian scientists wished to create “Women History” [3, c. 17] which was simultaneously studied by physiologists, psychologists, economists, sociologists, historians and philosophers. Collective work gained the complex character. Among them a bibliographic work by N. L. Pushkareva is notable [9, c. 38], that combines main names and works, methodizing historiographic facts, which touch upon problems of researching different sides of Russian women life, their work, entertainment, way of life, health, interests, every day cares by Russian and foreign scientists. Problems of the women’s state policy were analyzed in researches of O.A. Hasbulatova [13, с. 48]. They covered main stages of revolutionary and women movement, analyzed the women’s state policy. Works by S. G. Aivazova reported about political aspects of gender equality in Russia [1, с. 168]. I.E. Kiblitskaya [6, с. 15], S. U. Roshchin [10, с. 23], I.N. Grishunina [4, с. 67] investigated problems of the women’s state policy in the labour sphere during the Perestroika period in Russia and transition to the new forms of employment, analyzed modern conditions of women labour-market, considered methodological questions of gender aspects of labour investigations, different forms of women adaptation: secondary employment, entrepreneurship, transition to economically passive population, dependence on socio-demographic features, researching the peculiarities of women labour behavior in a period of the economic reforms.
In the literature about Krasnoyarsk region the socio-economic position in the region is considered. In the 1990s Krasnoyarsk politicians and researchers analyzed the process of transferring to market economy in the region, they found out the reasons of deteriorating socio-economic position of the population and the demographic situation.
Researching works devoted to the investigation of the women’s state policy in the region in the 1990s are few. Formation and realization of the children’s state policy which is connected with the women’s policy were studied by A. A. Nikhochina .
V. M. Zubov in his books [5, с. 32] pointed out that in the reforming period there was a necessity in serious changes in the whole system of public values, state policy, in the need to protect the most vulnerable population (women and children) from its consequences. The Chairman of the Krasnoyarsk region Legislative Assembly A. V. Uss in the book “Our region is my Motherland” [12, с. 83] analyzed economic and social changes in the region and their impact on all social classes including women and mothers. The author examined forms and methods of the Krasnoyarsk region Legislative Assembly and the way of making decisions. In the work the difficulties of social laws and programs adopted were mentioned. At the same time A. V. Uss did not touch the problems of social policy formation. The great contribution was made by collective monograph “Krasnoyarsk: stages of historical way” to the development of modern History [7, с. 32]. In this work using Krasnoyarsk as an example, processes of the reforming period in economic, social and political spheres were analyzed.
Thus, summing the main aspects up, which were analyzed by above-mentioned researchers, the following task is stated: there is a need to analyze socio-economic preconditions of the women’s state policy formation in the Krasnoyarsk region in the 1990s.
The description of investigation
The women’s state policy was formed in the Soviet period as a relatively independent sphere of the social policy. Its systematic realization led to creation of powerful public infrastructure of children bringing up and socialization, functioning at the expense of the public consumption fund.
A family was put into dependent position on the state and could not live by itself without its support in the form of different benefits, addressed to overcoming family poverty and increasing birth rate.
Historical experience shows that the women’s state policy is subjected to socio-economic and political factors impact, in particular it is subjected to the interests of different classes, social groups, the political regime, national interests and religious requirements of the society.
From the beginning of the 1990s in the USSR revolutionary changes took place in all spheres of the society life activity, indicating new public system establishment . The CPSU quitted to be the leading party and was dismissed. The multi-party system was formed. Instead of the only Marxist-Leninist ideology there appeared ideological diversity and refusal from the state or compulsory ideology. The state structure changed. New electing system was established. Instead of the state social economy the market economy took its place. Moreover, the state private ownership became the leading one.
The question about the state role in the market changes and the reform of social sphere in Russia was the subject of the acute political fight caused weakening the state, loosing main functions of the market economy formation and extreme polarization of society prevention during 1991-1992.
In the Russian Federation the reforms were revolutionary and caused the decreasing of state structure role in the socio-economic relations. The Program of the economy transition to the market relations from the first of January in 1991 began this process in the Krasnoyarsk region. It was adopted in August in 1990 during the Regional Soviet session .
Establishment of private section in the main branches in industry immediately led to social guaranties cuttings, which the regional population had (paid sickness leaves, benefits for children in kindergartens, pioneer camps, child-care leave, holidays and so on).
Tens of thousands of highly qualified workers, teachers, doctors, kindergarten teachers were discharged. This led to negative consequences in the social and budgetary spheres. An absolute majority of enterprises refused to support enterprise kindergartens, outpatient departments, sanatoriums, pioneer camps, hostels, rest homes and hospitals for workers and their families transferred to the federal, municipal and regional ownership. Enterprises stopped to provide schools with patronage assistance, organize free of charge and preferential sanatorium-and-spa treatment of the staff and their families. Financing organized by the residual principle or absolute refusal to support population needs, was transferred to the double level of financing: federal and regional, reducing material and technical basis and low quality of social sphere service; this caused the destruction of social infrastructure which was supported by industrial and agricultural enterprises. All these phenomena of the Perestroyka period had negative impact on the women economic position, their moral image and caused demographic crisis.
Thus, summing up the above-mentioned facts, we can come to the conclusion that socio-economic preconditions of the women’s state policy formation in the Krasnoyarsk region in the 1990s were the following phenomena: the 1990s became the period of transition from the paternalistic women’s policy to the liberal one. This led to deteriorating the women socio-economical position. New socio-economic conditions became preconditions of the women’s state policy formation; tardiness of law adoption aimed at improving socio-economic women position, their family status and reproductive health, caused the demographic crisis, which affected not only the Krasnoyarsk region but the Russian Federation in the whole. That’s why the women’s state policy should be aimed at improving their socio-economic position, maternity and childhood protection.
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