Шарков И.Г.1 , Родионова В.И.2
1Страший преподаватель истории и философии; 2Кандидат философских наук, доцент, Южно-Российский Университет Экономики и Сервиса
ФОРМООБРАЗУЮЩИЙ ПРИНЦИП, СТАТУС И ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРАВОСЛАВНОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ
В настоящей статье рассматривается русская православная культура, её основания, социокультурные особенности. Даётся философская рефлексия феномена русской православной культуры в трудах представителей русской религиозной философии. Также отмечается значение православия в формировании и развитии русского менталитета.
Ключевые слова: православная культура, православие, религиозная философия, традиция.
Sharkov IG1 , Rodionova VI2
1The senior teacher of «Philosophy and History» South-Russia state University of economy and service; 2 Ph in philosophy, associate professor, South-Russia state University of economy and service
FORM-BUILDING PRINCIPE, STATUS AND FEATURES OF ORTHODOX CULTURE
This article deals with Russian Orthodox culture, its basis, social and cultural features. The purpose of the article is to give the reader some information on philosophy reflection of Russian Orthodox culture’s phenomenon in works of representatives of Russian religious philosophy. Also the meaning of orthodoxy in foundation and progress of Russian mentality is stressed.
Keywords: orthodox culture, orthodoxy, religious philosophy, tradition.
Difficult processes in Russia during XX century, destroying of former ideological concepts and beliefs led to changing in spiritual life of society. Revolution in 1917 defined a place of our country in universal order in a new way. In Post-Soviet Russia there was a strengthening of interest to development of domestic culture for the last decades because of change of cultural and moral reference points. In the last decades the XX century two interesting phenomena of the Russian culture of the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX century became a subject of active researches of domestic philosophical and culturological thoughts: the first – the religious Renaissance, expressed in the Russian religious philosophy, the second – the art Renaissance, which is showing in fine, applied art and architecture. According to N.A.Berdyaev reflecting on realities of the Russian spiritual culture, «the beginning of the XX century was marked by the Renaissance of spiritual culture, the philosophical and literary-esthetic Renaissance, a sharpening of religious and mystical sensitivity» [1, with. 7], though spiritual Renaissance is doubtful. Any Renaissance in spiritual life is pernicious because conservatism is one of considerable features of Church. These phenomena weren’t considered earlier that they have interrelation though the general bases are not doubtful. Generality of these phenomena is not only historical, but it also have uniform outlook and ideals. In the Russian religious art of the end by XIX – the beginning of the XX century the bases, related with religious philosophy of that time are obviously considered. The known thinker of the Soviet era M.K. Mamardashvili writes about phenomenon of the Russian philosophy of the XIX century. This phenomenon, being the most religious, created (for the first time in Russia) space of the autonomous spiritual life, independent philosophical thought [2, with. 62–63]. Revival begins in various areas of cultural activity, including painting, poetry and music, and at the same time the works on religious philosophy appeared. The creative, art intellectuals, philosophers, were convinced that they participated in spiritual updating of Russia, in formation of «new religious consciousness» [3, c.148-169]. Attractiveness of the Russian religious philosophy of the XIX-XX century of century is explained by the fact that it (in the conditions of world outlook crisis) tried to give to the person and society the practical program of life, moral ideals, the concept of the exalted meaning of the life. Reflections of the Russian philosophers of this period reflect world outlook searches of the Russian society, and they are at the moment represented rather actual because «emotional experience of world outlook contradictions is probably close by considerable part of our contemporaries to that condition which was tested by our compatriots at the beginning of previous century» [4, with. 3]. 117 One more interesting moment – the generality of perspective investigated by orthodox philosophers; and orthodox religion, as the uniform center of formation of religious art and spiritual thought. Many religious philosophers showed identical interest to practice of Old Russian and modern temple construction, and not smaller interest – to the fine arts, architecture. On the other hand, many religious artists adverted in their creativity to concepts of domestic philosophers, communicating with them personally and finding in their creativity an inspiration source. All this gives the grounds for making hypotheses about new, earlier unknown, based on orthodox understanding, uniform cultural space. Such cultural tendency which was earlier expressed in Slavophilism philosophy and in church architecture, since the end of the XIX century it got a general direction. All this allows to claim that the Russian religious Renaissance of the end of the XIX century is connected not only with philosophy, but also with religious art. Sharply increased value of art and culture at the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX century can be connected with changes in intellectuals’ opinion to religion questions, which in turn affected changing of the opinion of the general system of high art to religious art. At this time task of creation of beauty, as huge spiritual, reformative force arose for the creative people working in spheres of fine, subject-spatial arts and architecture. Such task quite corresponds to the general searches of spirituality which are expressing in religious searches of the Russian intellectuals. Such originality of a culturological orientation of the Russian religious philosophers, having direct attitude toward art, is national detailed attempt of revival of unity of national culture and education , unity of national consciousness on the basis of orthodox belief. Art form of the Russian spirituality expression proceeds from consciousness of the people, and it is a method of joining to culture of all Russian people. The Russian religious art differently, but rather brightly, personified ideas of a unity, «sobornost» and God-seeking because in cathedral Church, according to Saint Maximus the Confessor, «everyone dissolves in each other by the simple and unseparable power of belief …» [5, with. 296]. The word «sobornost», familiar to us from orthodox culture, appeared in Russia as a result of the translation of concept «catholicity», but, being translated analog of the original, it was filled with another meaning, that’s why the full translation into the western languages is impossible. The term «catholicity» means ecumenism, unity. «Sobornost» means unity too, «but deprived of uniformity and the slightest depersonalization»б and corresponds to evangelical ideas of Church [6, page 23]. The idea of «sobornost» is of great importance for religious art and philosophy of the end of XIX – the beginning of XX and it is embodied in idea of the Trinity, as a symbol of general love, unity and brotherhood. By the end of the XIX century the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius had become one of the centers of spiritual revival of the Russian people. The Trinity is idea of national consciousness for the Russian people. Proclaimed by St. Sergius and the abbot Sergius of Radonezh much earlier, this idea played one of leading roles in emergence and formation of domestic culture. The Christian doctrine of the Trinity, comprehended by the Russian philosophers (I.V. Kireevsky, A.S. Homyakov, etc.), became the base of fundamental concepts of «sobornost» and unity. Cathedral unity, according to A.S. Khomyakov, is «free and organic unity, the live beginning of which is divine grace of mutual love» [7, page 10]. «Sobornost» was included into a way of life of the Russian people, became an essential component of the Russian civilization and was embodied in cultural tradition. The basic principle of «sobornost» is the harmonious combination of unity and variety, it is «unity in the multitude». The cathedral unity imply free acceptance of the supreme values and preservation the unique features of each certain person by all members of unity. According to modern researcher E.B.Rashkovsky, «the philosophical concept of the unity is the metaphysical concept» [8, page 96]. The Russian thinkers (also artists and architects) based their philosophical system concepts on the most significant basis in orthodox Christianity – a doctrine of the Holy Trinity. This idea, anyway, was affected by many known religious philosophers of Russia – N.F. Fedorov, E.N. Trubetskoy, S.N. Trubetskoy, etc. Also one more important feature of their works can be noted is connection of religious and art perspective. This tradition is traced from thoughts and acts of the sacred founder of Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius. It should be noted that the generality of orientation and sources of creativity of religious philosophers, art workers and culture are the scriptures, monuments of orthodox Christian spirituality and an Old Russian iconography and architecture.
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