Белявский Ю. А.1, Мыслыва Т. Н.2
1, 2 Кандидат сельскохозяйственных наук, доцент, Житомирский национальный агроэкологический университет
ТЯЖЕЛЫЕ МЕТАЛЛЫ В УРБОГРУНТАХ СЕЛЬСКИХ НАСЕЛЕННЫХ ПУНКТОВ 20-КИЛОМЕТРОВОЙ ПРИГОРОДНОЙ ЗОНЫ Г. ЖИТОМИР
Исследован уровень содержания тяжелых металлов на территории сельских населенных пунктов в пределах 20-километровой пригородной зоны г. Житомир. Установлено, что приоритетными загрязнителями почвенного покрова являются медь (коэффициент концентрации Кр = 1,6 – 6,2), свинец (Кр = 5,8 – 20,4) и цинк (Кр = 17,1 – 73,5)).
Ключевые слова: почва, тяжелые металлы, загрязнение.
Bilyavskyj Yu. A.1, Myslyva t. M.2
1, 2 PhD in Ecology, assosiate professor, Zhytomyr National Agroecological University
HEAVY METALS IN SOILS OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS OF 20-KILOMETRE SUBURBAN ZONE OF ZHYTOMYR
The level of maintenance of heavy metals in soils on the territory of rural settlements of the 20-km suburban zone of Zhytomyr has bee n investigated. It has been established that the principal pollutants of soil are fixed forms of copper (coefficient of concentration Кр = 1,6 – 6,2), lead (Кр = 5,8 – 20,4) and zinc (Кр = 17,1 – 73,5)).
Keywords: soil, heavy metals, contaminations.
The heavy metals and their connections are characterized with considerable stability, high toxic properties, expressed cumulative properties and negative influence on man’s health and acquire the most priority value among the numerous anthropogenic pollutants of biosphere . The ground cover in the conditions of strengthening of processes of technogenesis feels considerable anthropogenic influence not only within the limits of the urbanized territories but also on the territory of rural settlements. Taking into consideration that the state kept oneself aloof from the control after the use of land in private sector and that the monitoring supervisions on the state of soils within the limits of rural territories are not practically conducted, the ecological problems will be urgent here in future, that is why researches of causes and effects of their display are actual.
The purpose of research is to estimate the levels of contamination of soil with the gross and fixed forms of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn) on the territory of rural settlements of 20-km suburban zone of Zhytomyr, and the establishment of features of accumulation of heavy metals in the components of agrolandscapes.
The researches were conducted during 2009-2014 within the limits of such rural settlements: Luka, Pryazhiv, Kalynivka, Bystri, Ivanivka, Novoselytsya, Pischanka, Perlyavka, Pisky, Gadzynka.
Extracting of gross forms of heavy metals has been carried out with concentrated HNO3 according to the requirements, and the extracting of fixed forms of heavy metals – with 1н of HNO3. For elemental analysis, an atomic absorption spectrometer (C 115-1M) was used. Pb and Cd levels in the samples were determined by HGA graphite furnace, using argon as inert gas. Other measurements were carried out in the air/acetylene flame . All the experimental data have been reported in mg/kg. The technogenic of part of heavy metals was determined after the method that has been described in . The estimation of the content of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in soil was based on determination of such geochemical coefficients, as a coefficient of concentration of element (Kp)  and index of saturation of soil by the element (s) Iel . The total index of contamination of soil Zc was determined for the estimation of multielements anomalies that characterize the presence of various pollutants in soil and the average exceeding of their concentration in relation to the background.
Gross content of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in the soil differs in dependence on type of the rock on which the soils within the limits of settlements have been formed. It is very important to have the information about technogenic constituent in total content of gross form of heavy metal in soil for the ecological estimation of contamination. The technogenic part of heavy metals can be used for this purpose because this index characterizes the part of technogenic element in its total gross content in soil. The high and medium technogenic orientation of copper has been set for soils of all settlements, with the exception of Luka, Pischanka and Ivanivka, where it has been low. The medium technogenic orientation of lead characterizes the soils on the territory of Kalynivka, Pryazhiv and Bystri, the high technogenic orientation – the soils on the territory of Gadzynka. The medium technogenic orientation of cadmium is characteristic for the territory of Bystri, Pisky, Luka and Gadzynka, the medium technogenic orientation of zinc is characteristic for the territory of all villages with the exception of Luka where it has been low. It is necessary to say that only the soils of Pryazhiv are marked by medium technogenic orientation of cadmium. The technogenic orientation of investigational heavy metals in soils of rural territories forms a range like: Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb.
As for the content of fixed forms of heavy metals, it is set that on the territory of rural settlements copper, lead and zinc are the priority pollutants of the soil because their concentration exceed the background content considerably.
It is possible to estimate the general ecological state of the probed territory as for its contamination by heavy metals using the total index of contamination by heavy metals. We can also use the index of saturation by heavy metals of 0 – 20 cm topsoil for description of accumulation of elements (tabl. 1).
In obedience to the comparative evaluation scale of soil contamination hazard the soils within the limits of all of the probed rural settlements of 20-km of suburban area after the total index of contamination of Zc fall into the category of dangerous contamination and are useless for growing potato and vegetables. An exception makes only the soil on the territory of Luka, where the situation is characterized as moderato dangerous. It is necessary to add that only the soils on the territory of Luka is suitable for growing any culture without limitations, however undercontrol of their quality.
Table 1 – Coefficient of concentration, total index of contamination and index of saturation by heavy metals of soils of rural settlements within the limits of 20-km suburban zone of Zhytomyr
|Place of selection of soil samples||Total index of contamination, Zc||Index of saturation of soil by heavy metals,
ІelCu Pb Cd Zn
Note: numerator – average value of index, denominator – the limits of changeability of index.
The most dangerous situation with contamination of soil by heavy metals has been formed on the territory of Kalynivka (Zc = 96,2) and Bystri (Zc = 90,4). The indices of saturation by heavy metals 0 – 20 cm of topsoil, which considerably exceed unit and on the average hesitate from 3,7 to 9,6 testify the predominance of processes of accumulation of pollutants in soil. According to the intensity of contamination of soil of agrosettle landscapes, the probed heavy metals form such range: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd.
Conclusion: 1) The priority pollutants of soil of agrosettle landscapes are fixed forms of copper (coefficient of concentration Kp = 1,6 – 6,2), lead (Kp = 5,8 – 20,4) and zinc (Kp = 17,1 – 73,5). 2) The processes of accumulation of pollutants in agrosettle landscapes considerably exceed the processes of their dispersion (index of saturation of soil by heavy metals IelCuPb Cd Zn = 3,7 – 9,6). 3) The territory within the limits of Bystri and Kalynivka is the most dangerous as for geoecology of contamination of the soil by heavy metals (Zc = 90,4 – 96,2).
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